Monday, 5 December 2011

new urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement, which promotes walkable neighborhoods that contain a range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has gradually continued to reform many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, and municipal land-use strategies.

New Urbanists support regional planning for open space, context-appropriate architecture and planning, and the balanced development of jobs and housing. They believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion, increase the supply of affordable housing, and rein in suburban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the re-development of brownfield land.

Prospect New Town in Longmont, Colorado, showing a mix of aggregate housing and traditional detached homes

Mixed use pedestrian-friendly street in Bitola, FYR of Macedonia.

transit-oriented development (TOD)

A transit-oriented development (TOD) is a mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a transit station or stop (train station, metro station, tram stop, or bus stop), surrounded by relatively high-density development with progressively lower-density development spreading outward from the center. TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians.
Many of the new towns created after World War II in Japan, Sweden, and France have many of the characteristics of TOD communities. In a sense, nearly all communities built on reclaimed land in the Netherlands or as exurban developments in Denmark have had the local equivalent of TOD principles integrated in their planning, including the promotion of bicycles for local use.
Transit-oriented development is sometimes distinguished by some planning officials from "transit-proximate development" (see, e.g. comments made during a Congressional hearing [2]) because it contains specific features that are designed to encourage public transport use and differentiate the development from urban sprawl. Examples of these features include mixed-use development that will use transit at all times of day, excellent pedestrian facilities such as high quality pedestrian crossings, narrow streets, and tapering of buildings as they become more distant from the public transport node. Another key feature of transit-oriented development that differentiates it from "transit-proximate development" is reduced amounts of parking for personal vehicles.

COMPONENTS OF TRANSIT ORIENTED DESIGN-Walkable design with pedestrian as the highest priority
-Train station as prominent feature of town center
-A regional node containing a mixture of uses in close proximity including office, residential, retail, and civic uses
-High density, high-quality development within 10-minute walk circle surrounding train station
-Collector support transit systems including trolleys, streetcars, light rail, and buses, etc
-Designed to include the easy use of bicycles, scooters, and rollerblades as daily support transportation systems
-Reduced and managed parking inside 10-minute walk circle around town center / train station

-Higher quality of life
-Better places to live, work, and play
-Greater mobility with ease of moving around
-Increased transit ridership
-Reduced traffic congestion and driving
-Reduced car accidents and injuries
-Reduced household spending on transportation, resulting in more affordable housing
-Healthier lifestyle with more walking, and less stress
-Higher, more stable property values
-Increased foot traffic and customers for area businesses
-Greatly reduced dependence on foreign oil
-Greatly reduced pollution and environmental destruction
-Reduced incentive to sprawl, increased incentive for compact development
-Less expensive than building roads and sprawl
-Enhanced ability to maintain economic competitiveness

Isu Di Pinggir Bandar

Bandar yang membangun adalah baik sama ada untuk penduduk bandar atau dari segi ekonomi. Penduduk bandar akan mendapat banyak manfaat dengan pembangunan bandar. Dari segi ekonominya pembangunan bandar dapat meningkatkan ekonomi. pembangunan bandar akan menyebabkan kawasan pinggir bandar akan menghadapi masalah.

Pembagunan dalam bandar menyebabkan timbulnya pelbagai masalah di pinggir bandar. Terdapat pelbagai masalah yang timbul antaranya iaitu kesesakkan lalulintas, kesesakkan kediaman, pencemaran dan banyak lagi masalah yang timbul. Masalah ini boleh menjejaskan kehidupan masyarakat yang tinggal di pinggir bandar. Mungkin hari ini saya akan menghuraikan masalah kesesakkan lalulintas.

Kesesakkan lalulintas kawasan pinggir bandar disebabkan oleh kenderaan yang melalui kawsan tersebut sama ada ke dalam bandar atau ke luar bandar. Semakin pesat sesuatu bandar maka semakin sesaklah laluan di pinggir bandar. Antara yang menyebabkan masalah ini berlaku ialah pertambahan kenderaan persendirian. hal ini berlaku kerana kebanyakan orang yang telah bekerja menginginkan  kenderaan sendiri kerana ia memudahkan pergerakkan dari satu tempat ke satu tempat.

Kesesakkan lalulintas juga disebabkan oleh kurangnya kenderaan awam yang menyebabkan ramai orang memilih untuk menggunakan kenderaan sendiri. Hal ini disebabkan kenderaan awam yang disediakan tidak melalui semua laluan yang ada. Hal ini menyebabkan ramai orang tidak gemar menggunakan kenderaan awam. Selain itu kenderaan awam yang disediakan tidak efisen. Kesannya orang ramai tidak mahu menggunakannya. Keadaan ini menyebabkan kesesakkan lalulintas di kawasan pinggir bandar.

Kesimpulanya kesesakkan lalulintas berlaku disebabkan pertambahan kenderaan persendirian yang menyebabkan laluan keluar masuk bandar yang berada di pinggir bandar menjadi sesak. Kekurangan dan kurang efisen kenderaan awam juga menyebabkan berlakunya kesesakkan di pinggir bandar.